# Applying Linear Programming To Project Management

By product z brings a unit profit of Rs. 6 if sold; in case of it cannot be sold the destruction cost is Rs. 4 unit. Forecasts indicate that not more than 5 units of z can be sold. Determine the quantities of x and y to be produced keeping z in mind, so that the profit earned is maximum. Determines the number of production runs for each method so as to maximize the total no. of complete units of the final product. Using the Matrix-based approach, we use Linear Algebra to multiply a matrix of variables by a matrix of cost or profit variables. Since we can construct matrices easily programmatically or from data stored in databases or data files, this makes dealing with a large number of variables much more feasible. A basic text in linear programming, the solution of systems of linear equalities. The inequalities Ax≤b and x ≥ 0 are the constraints which specify a convex polytope over which the objective linear programming project examples function is to be optimized. In this context, two vectors are comparable when they have the same dimensions.

## Network Optimization Algorithms

Integer programming gives the most accurate solution, but the slow solution speed and large memory requirements imposed may not be worth the added accuracy. The branch and bound method solves the integer programming problem by creating a series of sub-problems that relax the integer constraints. Eventually, a solution is found that maximizes the objective function while satisfying the integer constraints. The feasible solution that corresponds to maximal z is the optimal solution. If you were trying to minimize the objective function instead, then the optimal solution would correspond to its feasible minimum. The independent variables you need to find—in this case x and y—are called the decision variables.

Linear programming can be used as part of the process to determine the characteristics of the loan offer. The linear program seeks to maximize the profitability of its portfolio of loans. The constraints limit the risk that the customer will default and will not repay the loan. A model to accomplish this could contain thousands of variables and constraints. Highly trained analysts determine ways to translate all the constraints into mathematical inequalities or equations to put into the model. Many large businesses that use linear programming and related methods have analysts on their staff who can perform the analyses needed, including linear programming and other mathematical techniques. Consulting firms specializing in use of such techniques also aid businesses who need to apply these methods to their planning and scheduling processes.

## Northwest Corner Method And Least Cost Method

A number of algorithms for other types of optimization problems work by solving LP problems as sub-problems. Historically, ideas from linear programming have inspired many of the central concepts of optimization theory, such as duality, decomposition, and the importance of convexity and its generalizations. Although the modern management issues are ever-changing, most companies would like to maximize profits and minimize costs with limited resources. Therefore, many issues can be characterized as linear programming problems. Thus, the number of possibilities increases exponentially with the number of decision variables that must be evaluated. The a’s, b’s, and c’s are constants determined by the capacities, needs, costs, profits, and other requirements and restrictions of the problem. The basic assumption in the application of this method is that the various relationships between demand and availability are linear; that is, none of the xi is raised to a power other than 1. In order to obtain the solution to this problem, it is necessary to find the solution of the system of linear inequalities . The objective function is then evaluated by substituting the values of the xi in the equation that defines f. Once other methods are used to predict the actual and desired distributions of bikes among the stations, bikes may need to be transported between stations to even out the distribution.

## I Need Project Ideas That Involve Linear Or Integer Programming

This is the feasible solution with the largest values of both x and y, giving it the maximal objective function value. The parameter c refers to the coefficients from the objective function.

However, these kinds of problems are more challenging to visualize with a coordinate graph, and there can be many more vertices to check for the optimal solution. The simplex algorithm was developed as an efficient method to solve these kinds of problems. Generally, an organization or a company has mainly two objectives, the first one is minimization and the other is maximization. Minimization means to minimize the total cost of production while maximization means to maximize their profit. So with the help of linear programming graphical method, we can find the optimum solution.

## Linear Programming Projects

Linear programming is a special case of mathematical programming . This model is also known as the Mathematical Model of project selection, which is used for large projects requiring complex mathematical calculations. Mathematical Models of project selection are Linear Programming, Non-linear Programming, Integer Programming, and Dynamic Programming. The problem here is to maximize output that is to allocate construction managers such that the overall output for the all construction projects is the best possible.

• Slack variables represent the positive difference, or slack, between the left hand side of an inequality and the right hand side of that inequality.
• Management is considering to devote this excess capacity to one or more of the three products; call them P1, P2, and P3.
• There are often various manufacturing plants at which the products may be produced.
• However, when you include overhead costs, you might realize that running multiple activities at crash level is financially advantageous, if it reduces the overall duration and overhead costs.
• A person wants to decide the constituents of a diet which will fulfill his daily requirement of proteins, fats and carbohydrates at the minimum cost.
• Provide time for students to graph and complete their calculations to determine the optimum number of items they should produce in a day to earn the biggest profit.
• In case one or more values of Zj – Cj are found to be negative, then the solution needs improvement.
• Linear programming can be used to solve a problem when the goal of the problem is to maximize some value and there is a linear system of inequalities that defines the constraints on the problem.

Now in column for S1, 1 appears in 1st row, so S1 is entered in program column of 1st row. These are the variables entering in the initial feasible solution. The variables taken in the initial feasible solution are chosen corresponding to identity vector columns i.e. of the form , , initial simplex tableau giving priority to artificial variables.

## Quasilinearization, Boundary

Other vertices, like the yellow one, have higher values for the objective function. The basic method for solving linear programming problems is called the simplex method, which has several variants. Imagine that you have a system of linear equations and inequalities. Linear programming is a set of mathematical and computational tools that allows you to find a particular solution to this system that corresponds to the maximum or minimum of some other linear function. On solving the objective function you will get the maximum weekly audience as 1,052,000.

Applications of linear programming are everywhere around you. You use linear programming at personal and professional fronts. You are using linear programming when you are driving from home to work and want to take the shortest route. Or when you have a project delivery you make strategies to make your team work efficiently for on-time delivery. Hence at this stage Row III is taken as the key row and X becomes the departing variable whereas Z is the entering variable. The available capacity on the machine as well as the number of machine hours required for each unit of the respective products is given below. The search for key row terminates where the row yields unequal ratios.

## 1 Northwest Corner Method

The 6 delivery destinations are given by U, V, W, X, Y, and Z. The numbers on the lines indicate the distance between the cities. To save on fuel and time the delivery person wants to take the shortest route. Determine the departing variable by calculating the Ratio column from Rule V and selecting the smallest non-negative value. These variables are introduced in ≥ in-equations to change them into equations e.g. There are 100 hours of engineering time, 600 hours of direct labour and 300 hours of administrative time available. I did notice an error in this set of problems on the fourth problem. So one has to balance between the benefits of completing the project early with the increased direct cost of completing the activities. Very informative and useful article, esp. with the real life examples. Let’s say a FedEx delivery man has 6 packages to deliver in a day.

In this case, there is one constraint for each vertex of the graph and one variable for each independent set of the graph. are (non-negative) slack variables, representing in this example the unused area, the amount of unused fertilizer, and the amount of unused pesticide.

### Is the function linear?

Linear functions are those whose graph is a straight line. A linear function has one independent variable and one dependent variable. The independent variable is x and the dependent variable is y. a is the constant term or the y intercept.

Express the feasible alternatives mathematically in terms of variables. Feasible alternatives linear programming project examples are those which are physically, economically and financially possible.

This not only adds efforts and reduces the time required to complete the activity faster, but also increases the cost for completing the activity. When you complete only a specific activity for a duration that incurs the hire php freelancer smallest cost, you term it as the normal time. You crash an activity by spending more efforts to make sure that the activity takes lesser time to complete. Adding efforts to the activity definitely increases the cost.

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